### Publications by Arto Salomaa before 1990#

(Books in italics)- 1959
- On many-valued systems of logic. Ajatus 22, 115 -159.

- 1960
- On the composition of functions of several variables ranging over a finite set. Ann. Univ. Turku, Ser. A I 41, 48 pp.
- A theorem concerning the composition of functions of several variables ranging over a finite set. Journal of Symbolic Logic 25, 203--8.

- 1962
- On the number of simple bases of the set of functions over a finite domain. Ann. Univ. Turku, Ser. A I 52, 4 pp.
- Some completeness criteria for sets of functions over a finite domain, I. Ibid., Ser. A I 53, 10 pp.

- 1963
- Some completeness criteria for sets of functions over a finite domain, II. Ibid., Ser. A I 63, 19 pp. (Russian translations of two previous papers in Kibernetitseskii sbornik 8 (1964), 8--32.)
- On sequences of functions over an arbitrary domain. Ibid., Ser. A I 62, 5 pp.
- Some analogues of Sheffer functions in infinite-valued logics. Proc. Colloq. Modal and Many-valued Logics in Helsinki 1962, 227--235.
- On basic groups for the set of functions over a finite domain. Ann. Acad. Scient. Fennicae, Ser. A I 338, 15 pp.
- On essential variables of functions, especially in the algebra of logic. Ibid., Ser. A I 339, 11 pp.

- 1964
- Theorems on the representation of events in Moore automata. Ann. Univ. Turku, Ser. A I 69, 14 pp.
- On infinitely generated sets of operations in finite algebras. Ibid., Ser. A I 74, 13 pp.
- Axiom systems for regular expressions of finite automata. Ibid., Ser. A I 75, 29 pp.
- On the reducibility of events represented in automata. Ann. Acad. Scient. Fennicae, Ser. A I 353, 16 pp.

- 1965
- On the heights of closed sets of operations in finite algebras. Ibid., Ser. A I 363, 12 pp.
- On some algebraic notions in the theory of truthfunctions. Acta Philos. Fennica 18, 193--202.
- On probabilistic automata with one input letter. Ann. Univ. Turku, Ser. A I 85, 16 pp.
- Automaattien teoriasta. Arkhimedes, 7--20.

- 1966
- Two complete axiom systems for the algebra of regular events. Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery 13, 158--169.
- Aksiomatizatsija algebry sobytii, realizuemyh logitseskimi setjami. Problemy Kibernetiki 17, 237--246.

- 1967
- On $m$-adic probabilistic automata. Information and Control 10, 215--19.
- Formal languages. Lecture Notes for the Research Seminar on Computer Science, Univ. of Toronto, 58 pp.

- 1968
- On events represented by probabilistic automata of different types. Canadian Journal of Mathematics 20, 242--251.
- On languages accepted by probabilistic and time-variant automata. Proc. II Princeton Conf. On Information Sciences and Systems 184--188.
- (with V. Tixier) Two complete axiom systems for the extended language of regular expressions. IEEE Computer Trans. C-17, 700--701.
- On finite automata with a time-variant structure. Information and Control 13, 85--98.
- On finite time-variant automata with monitors of different types. Ann. Univ. Turku, Ser. A I 118:3, 12 pp.
- On regular expressions and regular canonical systems. Mathematical Systems Theory 2, 341--355.
- Matematiikka ja tietokone. Arkhimedes, 5--10.

- 1969
- "
*Theory of Automata*". International Series of Monographs in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Vol. 100, Pergamon Press, 276 pp. Japanese translation by Kyoritsu Shuppan in 1974. - On the index of a context-free grammar and language. Information and Control 14, 474--477.
- Probabilistic and time-variant grammars and languages. Avh. Forsta Nordiska Logikersymposiet, 115--133.
- On grammars with restricted use of productions. Ann. Acad. Scient. Fennicae, Ser. A I 454, 32 pp.

- "

- 1970
- On some families of formal languages obtained by regulated derivations. Ibid., Ser. A I 479, 18 pp.
- Probabilistic and weighted grammars. Information and Control 15, 529--544.
- Periodically time-variant context-free grammars. Ibid., 17, 294--311.

- 1971
- The generative capacity of transformational grammars of Ginsburg and Partee. Ibid., 18, 227--232.
- Theories of abstract automata (review). Ibid., 19, 476--478.
- Grammars with control languages. Mathematisch Instituut, Utrecht, publ. no. 7, 8 pp.

- 1972
- Matrix grammars with a leftmost restriction. Information and Control 20, 143--149.
- On a homomorphic characterization of recursively enumerable languages. Ann. Acad. Sci. Fennicae, Ser. A I 525, 10 pp.

- 1973
- "
*Formal Languages*". Academic Press, New York, 335 pp. - On exponential growth in Lindenmayer systems. Indagationes Mathematicae 35, 23--30.
- On sentential forms of context-free grammars. Acta Informatica 2, 40--49.
- (with A. Paz) Integral sequential word functions and growth equivalence of Lindenmayer systems. Information and Control 23, 313--343.
- Macros, iterated substitution and Lindenmayer AFL's. Aarhus University DAIMI Publications 18, 13 pp.
- On some decidability problems concerning developmental languages. Proc. 3rd Scandinavian Logic Symposium, North-Holland Publ. Co. (1975), pp. 144--153.
- Growth functions associated with some new types of grammars. Proc. Conf. on Algebraic Theory of Automata, Szeged, 27--31.
- On some recent problems concerning developmental languages. Proc. 1. Fachtagung \"uber Automatentheorie und formale Sprachen, Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 2, 23--34.
- L-systems: a device in biologically motivated automata theory. Proc. Conf. on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 147--151.
- Developmental languages: a new type of formal languages. Ann. Univ. Turku, Ser. B 126, pp. 183--189.

- "

- 1974
- Solution of a decision problem concerning unary Lindenmayer systems. Discrete Mathematics 9, 71--77.
- Some remarks concerning many-valued propositional logics. In: S. Stenlund (ed.), Logical Theory and Semantical Analysis, D. Reidel Publ. Co., 15--21.
- (with M. Nielsen, G. Rozenberg and S. Skyum) Nonterminals, homomorphisms and codings in different variations of $OL$-systems, Parts I-II. Acta Informatica 3, pp. 357-364, and 4, pp. 87--106.
- (with G. Rozenberg) The mathematical theory of L systems. Aarhus University DAIMI Publications 33, 67 pp., extended version appears also in: J. Tou (ed.), Advances in Information Systems Science, Vol. 6, Plenum Press (1976), pp. 161--206.
- Recent results on L-systems. Proc. Conf. on Biologically Motivated Automata Theory, IEEE Publications no. 74 CH0 889-6 C, pp. 38--45.
- Parallelism in rewriting systems. Proc. 2nd Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming, Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 14, 523--533.
- (edited with G. Rozenberg) ``L Systems". Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 15, 338 pp.
- Iteration grammars and Lindenmayer AFL's. Previous Volume, pp. 250--253.

- 1975
- Formal power series and growth functions of Lindenmayer systems. Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 32, pp. 101--113.
- Comparative decision problems between sequential and parallel rewriting. Proc. Intern. Symp. Uniformly Structured Automata and Logic, IEEE Publications 75 CH1 052-0 C, pp. 62--66.
- Growth functions of Lindenmayer systems: some new approaches. In: Automata, Languages and Development, North-Holland (1976), pp. 271--282.
- Tietokoneiden tulo. In: Luonnontieteellisen tutkimuksen historia. WSOY, Porvoo, Finland, pp. 245--256.

- 1976
- (with G. Rozenberg) Context-free grammars with graph-controlled tables. Journal of Computer and System Sciences 13, pp. 90--99.
- (with G. Rozenberg and K. Ruohonen) Developmental systems with fragmentation. International Journal of Computer Mathematics 5, pp. 177--191.
- L systems: A parallel way of looking at formal languages. New ideas and recent developments. Mathematical Centre Tracts 82, Amsterdam, pp. 65--107.
- Sequential and parallel rewriting. In: R. Aguilar (ed.), Formal Languages and Programming. North-Holland, pp. 111--129.
- Undecidable problems concerning growth in informationless Lindenmayer systems. Elektronische Informationsverarbeitung und Kybernetik 12, pp. 331--335.
- Recent results on L systems. Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 45, pp. 115--123.

- 1977
- (with G. Rozenberg) New squeezing mechanisms for L systems. Information Sciences 12, pp. 187--201.
- Formal power series and language theory. Nanyang University Publications, 23 pp.
- (with H. Maurer and D. Wood) E0L forms. Acta Informatica 8, pp. 75--96.
- (with H. Maurer and Th. Ottman) On the form equivalence of L forms. Theoretical Computer Science 4, pp. 199--225.
- (with M. Penttonen and G. Rozenberg) Bibliography of L systems. Theoretical Computer Science 5, pp. 339--354.
- (ed. with M. Steinby) Automata, Languages and Programming. Proc. 4th ICALP Conference in Turku. Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 52, 569 pp.

- 1978
- (with M. Soittola)
*Automata-Theoretic Aspects of Formal Power Series*. Springer-Verlag, New York, 181 pp. - (with H. Maurer and D. Wood) On good E0L forms. SIAM Journal of Computing, Vol. 7, pp. 158--166.
- (with H. Maurer and D. Wood) Uniform interpretations of L forms. Information and Control 36, pp. 157--173.
- (with H. Maurer and D. Wood) ET0L forms. Journal of Computer and System Sciences, Vol. 16, pp. 345--361.
- (with K. Culik, H. Maurer, Th. Ottman and K. Ruohonen) Isomorphism, form equivalence and sequence equivalence of PD0L forms. Theoretical Computer Science 6, pp. 143--173.
- (with H. Maurer and D. Wood) Relative goodness of E0L forms. RAIRO/Theoretical Computer Science, Vol. 12, pp. 291--304.
- D0L equivalence: The problem of iterated morphisms. EATCS Bulletin 4, pp. 5--12.
- L systems and L forms. Journal of the Computer Society of India, Vol. 8, pp. 23--30.
- Equality sets for homomorphisms of free monoids. Acta Cybernetica Vol. 4, pp. 127--139.
- (with K. Culik) On the decidability of homomorphism equivalence for languages. Journal of Computer and System Sciences 17, pp. 163--175.

- (with M. Soittola)

- 1979
- (with H. Maurer, M. Penttonen and D. Wood) On non context-free grammar forms. Mathematical Systems Theory 12, pp. 297--324.
- Formale Sprachen. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, 314 pp. (Translation of "Formal Languages".)
- D0L language equivalence. EATCS Bulletin 8, pp. 4--12.
- Power from power series. Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 74, pp. 170--181.
- Language theory based on parallelism: old and new results about L systems. Proceedings of the Fourth IBM Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (Oiso, Japan), pp. 1--20.
- (with H. Maurer, G. Rozenberg and D. Wood) Pure interpretations of E0L forms. RAIRO/Theoretical Computer **Science, Vol. 13, pp. 347--362.
- (with H. Maurer and D. Wood) Context-dependent L forms. Information and Control 42, pp. 97--118.
- Sata vuotta matemaattista logiikkaa: paattelysaannoista tietokoneohjelmointiin. In: Muuttuvat ajat, WSOY, Porvoo, Finland, pp. 116--130.

- 1980
- (with G. Rozenberg)
*The Mathematical Theory of L Systems*. Academic Press, New York, xvi$+$352 pp. - Morphisms on free monoids and language theory. In R. Book (ed.) Formal Language Theory, Academic Press, pp. 141--166.
- (with H. Maurer and D. Wood) Synchronized E0L forms. Theoretical Computer Science, Vol. 12, pp. 135--159.
- (with H. Maurer and D. Wood) Pure grammars. Information and Control 44, pp. 47--72.
- (with H. Maurer and D. Wood) On generators and generative capacity of E0L forms. Acta Informatica 13, pp. 87--107.
- (with K. Culik) Test sets and checking words for homomorphism equivalence. Journal of Computer and System Sciences, Vol. 20, pp. 379--395.
- (with H. Maurer and D. Wood) Context-free grammar forms with strict interpretations. Journal of Computer and System Sciences, Vol. 21, pp. 110--135.
- Grammatical families. Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 85, pp. 543--554.
- (with H. Maurer and D. Wood) MSW spaces. Information and Control 46, pp. 187--199.

- (with G. Rozenberg)

- 1981
*Jewels of Formal Language Theory*. Computer Science Press, Potomac, Maryland, x$+$144 pp.- (with H. Maurer and D. Wood) Derivation languages of grammar forms, Journal of Computer Mathematics Section A, Vol. 9, pp. 117--130.
- (with H. Maurer and D. Wood) Colorings and interpretations: a connection between graphs and grammar forms, Discrete Applied Mathematics 3, pp. 119--135.
- (with H. Maurer and D. Wood) Decidability and density in two-symbol grammar forms, Discrete Applied Mathematics 3, pp. 289--299.
- (with H. Maurer and D. Wood) Uniform interpretations of grammar forms, SIAM Journal of Computing, Vol. 10, pp. 483--502.
- (with Th. Ottman and D. Wood) Sub-regular grammar forms, Information Processing Letters, Vol. 12, pp. 184--187.
- Salakirjoitus ja tietosuoja --- nakymia kryptografian tutkimuksesta. Arkhimedes, Vol. 33, pp. 129--135.
- What computer scientists should know about sauna? European Association for Theoretical Computer Science Bulletin, Vol. 15, pp. 8--21.
- (with H. Maurer and D. Wood) Synchronized E0L forms under uniform interpretation. RAIRO/Theoretical Computer Science, Vol. 15 (1981), pp. 337--353.
- (with H. Maurer and D. Wood) Completeness of context-free grammar forms, Journal of Computer and System Sciences, 23, pp. 1--10.
- (with G. Rozenberg) Table systems with unconditional transfer. Discrete Applied Mathematics 3, pp. 319--322.
- Formal power series in noncommuting variables. Proceedings of the 18th Scandinavian Congress for Mathematicians, Birkhauser, 104--124.
- On color-families of graphs. Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae, Ser. A I, 6, 135--148.
- (with J. Maenpaa and G. Rozenberg) Bibliography of L systems. Leiden University Computer Science Technical Report.

- 1982
- (with H. Maurer and D. Wood) Dense hierarchies of grammatical families. Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery 29, 118--126.
- (with K. Culik and F.E. Fich) A homomorphic characterization of regular languages. Discrete Applied Mathematics 4, 149--152.
- (with K. Culik and J. Gruska) On non-regular context-free languages and pumping. Bulletin of the European Association for Theoretical Computer Science, Number 16, pp. 22--24.
- (with H. Maurer and D. Wood) On predecessors of finite languages. Information and Control 50, 259--275.
- (with K. Culik) On infinite words obtained by iterating morphisms. Theoretical Computer Science 19, 29--38.
- (with H. Maurer and D. Wood) Finitary and infinitary interpretations of languages. Mathematical Systems Theory 15, 251--265.

- 1983
- (with K. Culik and J. Gruska) Systolic Automata for VLSI on balanced trees. Acta Informatica 18, 335--344.
- (with H. Maurer and D. Wood) L codes and number systems. Theoretical Computer Science 22, 331--346.
- (with H. Maurer and D. Wood) A supernormal-form theorem for context-free grammars. Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery 30, 95--102.
- (with J. Honkala) How do you define the complement of a language. EATCS Bulletin 20, 68--69.
- (with H. Maurer and D. Wood) On finite grammar forms. International Journal of Computer Mathematics 12, 227--240.
- (with K. Culik and J. Gruska) On a family of L languages resulting from systolic tree automata. Theoretical Computer Science 23, 231--242.
- (with K. Culik) Ambiguity and decision problems concerning number systems. Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science 154, 137--146.

- 1984
- (with K. Culik and J. Gruska) Systolic trellis automata, I and II. International Journal of Computer Mathematics 15, 195--212 and 16, 3--22.
- Trapdoors and protocols: recent trends in cryptography. In: H. Maurer (ed.) ``\"Uberblicke Informationsverarbeitung 1984". Bibliographisches Institut Mannheim-Wien-Z\"urich, 275--320.
- (with K. Culik and D. Wood) Systolic tree acceptors. RAIRO 18, 53--69.
- (with K. Culik) Ambiguity and decision problems concerning number systems. Information and Control 56, 139--153.
- Julkiset salat. Tiede 2000 9-10, 46--52.
- (ed. with W. Brauer and G. Rozenberg) 3 volumes of EATCS Monographs on Theoretical Computer Science, Springer-Verlag.

- 1985
*Computation and Automata*. Encyclopedia of Mathematics and Its Applications, Vol. 25. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, XIII$+$282 pp.- (with H. J\"urgensen) Syntactic monoids in the construction of systolic tree automata. International Journal of Computer and Information Sciences 14, 35--49.
- On a public-key cryptosystem based on parallel rewriting. Parcella-84, Proceedings of the International Conference on Parallel Processing, Berlin, 209--214.
- Cryptography from Caesar to DES and RSA. EATCS Bulletin 26, 101--119.
- The Ehrenfeucht conjecture: a proof for language theorists. EATCS Bulletin 27, 71--82.
- Generalized number systems: decidability, ambiguity, codes. Proceedings of the 19th Nordic Congress of Mathematicians, Reykjavik, 213--214.
- Tietosuojauksen kehittaminen. Matemaattisten aineiden aikakauskirja 49, 283--291.
- On meta-normal forms for algebraic power series in noncommuting variables. Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae, Ser. Al, Vol. 10, 501--510.
- (ed. with G. Rozenberg) The Book of L. Springer-Verlag, Berlin and New York, xv$+$471 pp.
- (with G. Rozenberg) When L was young. In: G. Rozenberg, A. Salomaa (eds.) The Book of L, Springer-Verlag, 383--392.
- (ed. with W. Brauer and G. Rozenberg) 2 volumes of EATCS Monographs on Theoretical Computer Science, Springer-Verlag.

- 1986
- (with W. Kuich)
*Semirings, Automata, Languages*. EATCS Monographs on Theoretical Computer Science, Vol. 5, Springer-Verlag, Berlin and New York, vi$+$374 pp. - (ed. with J. Demetrovics and G. Katona) Algebra, Combinatorics and Logic in Computer Science, I-II. North-Holland, Amsterdam and New York, 887 pp.
- Systolic tree and trellis automata. In: J. Demetrovics, G. Katona, A. Salomaa (eds.) Algebra, Combinatorics and Logic in Computer Science, North-Holland, 695--710.
*Zhemtsuzhiny teorii formalnykh jazykov*. Izd. "Mir", Moscow, 159 pp. (Translation of "Jewels of Formal Language Theory".)- (with E. Kinber and Sheng Yu) On the equivalence of grammars inferred from derivations. EATCS Bulletin 29, 39--46.
- (with K. Culik and J. Gruska) Systolic trellis automata: stability, decidability and complexity. Information and Control 71, 218--230.
- (with H. Maurer, E. Welzl and D. Wood) Denseness, maximality and decidability of grammatical families. Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae, Ser. Al, Vol. 11, 167--178.
- (with Sheng Yu) On a public-key cryptosystem based on iterated morphisms and substitutions. Theoretical Computer Science 48, 283--296.
- (ed. with W. Brauer and G. Rozenberg) 3 volumes of EATCS Monographs on Theoretical Computer Science, Springer-Verlag.

- (with W. Kuich)

- 1987
- Markov algorithms as language-defining devices. In: ``The Very Knowledge of Coding", Univ. of Turku, 120--127.
- (with S. Horvath, E. Kinber and Sheng Yu) Decision problems resulting from grammatical inference. Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae, Vol. 12, 287--298.
- Two-way Thue. EATCS Bulletin 32, 82--86.
- Playfair. EATCS Bulletin 33, 42--53.
- (ed. with W. Brauer and G. Rozenberg) 2 volumes of EATCS Monographs on Theoretical Computer Science, Springer-Verlag.

- 1988
- On a public-key cryptosystem based on language theory. Computers and Security, Vol. 7, 83--87.
- L codes: variations on a theme of MSW. In IIG Report 260, Ten years of IIG, 218.
- Cryptography and natural languages. EATCS Bulletin 35, 92--96.
- COSTOC: Tietokoneavusteisen opetuksen projekti. Korkeakoulujen ATK-Uutiset 2/88, 8--10.
- (ed. with T. Lepisto) Automata, Languages and Programming, Proc. of ICALP-88. Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 317, 741 pp.
*Computation and Automata*. Japanese translation. Information and Computing -28. x$+$332 pp.- Computation and Automata. HyperCOSTOC Computer Science, Vol. 5. Hofbauer Verlag AG. 84 pp. and 10 discs.
- Cryptography and Data Security. HyperCOSTOC Computer Science, Vol. 32. Hofbauer Verlag AG. 41 pp. and 5 discs.
- Cryptographic Transductions. EATCS Bulletin 36, 85--95.
- (ed. with W. Brauer and G. Rozenberg) 6 volumes of EATCS Monographs on Theoretical Computer Science, Springer-Verlag.

- 1989
- Knapsacks and superdogs. EATCS Bulletin 38, 107--123.
- Tutorial: Cryptography and data security. Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 381, 220--244.
- Public-key cryptosystems and language theory. A Perspective in Theoretical Computer Science. **Commemorative Volume for Gift Siromoney. World Scientific, Series in Computer Science, Vol. 16, 257--266.
- (with G. Rozenberg) Complexity theory. In Encyclopaedia of Mathematics, Vol. 2, 280--283. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
- (with G. Rozenberg) Cryptography. In Encyclopaedia of Mathematics, Vol. 2, 466-468. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
- (with G. Rozenberg) Formal languages and automata. In Encyclopaedia of Mathematics, Vol. 4, 53--57. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
- (ed. with W. Brauer and G. Rozenberg) 2 volumes of EATCS Monographs on Theoretical Computer Science, Springer-Verlag.