Fangli Qiao - Publications#

Prof. Fangli Qiao's list of publications can be found at He has published over 400 journal papers and 3 books in the areas of ocean circulation and turbulence, ocean and climate model development, etc. Some of these papers are published on highly reputed journals including the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A - Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, Nature Communication, Science Advances, Geophysical Research Letter, Journal of Physical Oceanography, Journal of Geophysical Research- Ocean and Ocean Modelling etc. These journals are peer-review and leading scientific journals on physical oceanography among others.

Prof. Qiao found that small scale surface waves play key roles in global scale climate system. Firstly, he discovered that non-braking surface waves can greatly enhance ocean turbulence through wave-turbulence interactions, and analytically expressed this mixing as the function of wave-number spectrum, which was known as the surface wave-induced mixing theory (was called Bv theory or Qiao theory). The Bv was verified by a series of following in-situ observations and laboratory experiments. Secondly, he revealed that surface waves can strongly modulate air-sea heat and momentum fluxes, and proposed new parameterizations of air-sea fluxes including surface waves. Thirdly, he dramatically improves the simulation and prediction ability of general ocean circulation models by reducing the simulation error of global mixed layer depth in the upper ocean by more than 80%, Tropical cyclone models were improved by reducing the Tropical cyclone intensity simulation error of category 1-5 about 40%, and climate models by reducing sea surface temperature (SST) bias about half, all above model biases are long-standing bottlenecks faced by all models. Qiao’s publications are popularly cited, with more than 9800 citations (7700+ from Google Scholar, and 2100+ by Chinese papers from CNKI database), and his h-index is 45, which is high in his discipline of ocean science. Listed below are ten papers that best represent his international recognition.


1. [Journal Paper] Qiao Fangli, Yeli Yuan, Yongzeng Yang, Quanan Zheng, Changshui Xia and Jian Ma, 2004, Wave-induced mixing in the upper ocean: Distribution and application to a global ocean circulation model. Geophysical Research Letter, 31(11): 1-4, L11303, doi:10.1029/2004GL019824 (cited 374 times).

Evidence: All ocean general circulation models have faced grand challenges that the simulated mixed layer depth in the upper ocean is too shallow and the sea surfaced temperature is too high in summer, indicating the vertical mixing in the model is too weak. In this paper, Qiao et al discovers the non-breaking surface wave can generate strong vertical mixing, and analytically expressed the mixing as the function of wave number spectrum, which is called the non-breaking surface wave-induced mixing theory (Bv). Bv is the scientific base for the coupling of small-scale surface waves and large-scale ocean general circulation. The Bv has been widely employed by many ocean model development groups in the world including the famous NEMO model since 2018 (Europe,, GFDL model (USA, Fan and Griffies, 2014), and regional CROCO model from 2018 (France, etc.

2. [Journal Paper] Qiao Fangli, Yeli Yuan, Jia Deng, Dejun Dai and Zhenya Song, 2016, Wave-turbulence interaction-induced vertical mixing and its effects in ocean and climate models. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A - Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, A 374: 20150201. http://dx. (cited 90 times).

Evidence: Turbulence remains the most important unresolved classical dynamical problem, which makes the mechanism and direct evidence of wave-turbulence interactions elusive, though some theoretical models had been proposed. In this study, Qiao et al demonstrates that the wave-turbulence interaction is quantitatively revealed. Furthermore, they provided solid experimental evidence of wave-turbulence interactions in the ocean directly for the first time and corrected the long-held traditional view that there is no dynamic interaction between surface wave and turbulence. As a result, a parameter is proposed for the vertical mixing in the ocean water column, which firmly establishes the critical role of wave-turbulence interaction effects in both general ocean circulation and climate models, and hence greatly improved the model-based climate forecasting capability.

3. [Journal Paper] Huang Chuanjiang, Fangli Qiao, 2021, Simultaneous observations of turbulent Reynolds stress in the ocean surface boundary layer and wind stress over the sea surface. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 126, e2020JC016839. (cited 4 times, Qiao is the corresponding author).

Evidence: Momentum flux (or turbulent Reynolds stress) in the ocean surface boundary layer can strongly regulate the development and evolvement of surface waves, oceanic currents, and turbulence. It is generally assumed to be equal to, at least no more than, the wind stress over the sea surface in ocean and climate models based on traditional boundary layer theory. However, simultaneous in situ observations conducted by Huang and Qiao show that the turbulent Reynolds stress in the ocean surface boundary layer is affected greatly by surface waves and can be much larger than the wind stress under certain circumstances. The new finding deepens our scientific understanding of the momentum budget in the ocean surface boundary layer, prompts us to double check ocean and climate models which have so much influence on our daily life and world sustainable development, and is expected to improve forecasting ability of ocean and climate systems.

4. [Journal Paper] Yang Guangbing, Changshui Xia, Xia Ju, Quanan Zheng, Yeli Yuan, Xuejun Xiong, Fangli Qiao, 2022, Development of a sea-sediment coupled model incorporating ocean bottom heat flux. J Phys. Oceangr, doi 10.1175/JPO-D-22-0076.1 (Qiao is the corresponding author).

Evidence: The seafloor heat flux (SHF) is usually thought to be neglectable and overlooked in all ocean general circulation models. However, in-situ observations and simulations of Qiao’s group have suggested that the SHF driven by bottom water temperature variation is significant in shelf seas. For the first time, Qiao’s group establish a sea-sediment fully coupled model through incorporating the SHF. The results suggest that the SHF was significant (about 10 W/m2) on seasonal timescale. The paper was published on JPO, one of the world leading journals in physical oceanography.

5. [Conference Paper] Qiao Fangli, Wei Zhao, Xunqiang Yin, Xiaomeng Huang, Xin Liu, Qi Shu, Guansuo Wang, Zhenya Song, Xinfang Li, Haixing Liu, Guangwen Yang, and Yeli Yuan, 2017, A highly effective global surface wave numerical simulation with ultra-high resolution. International Conference For High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage And Analysis, Sc.345 E 47th St, New York, Ny 10017 Usa.Ieee.2017-03-13, 46-56, ISBN 978-1-4673-8815-3, (cited 38 times).

Evidence: High resolution is one of the main streams of ocean and climate model development, and high-efficient parallel scheme is the key for high resolution models. Qiao et al accomplishes breakthroughs encompassing the design and application of irregular quasi-rectangular domain decomposition, master-slave cooperative computing workflow and pipelining scheme, and then successfully applied to a global wave model. The realistic surface wave simulations on Sunway TaihuLight Supercomputer, which was the top 1 supercomputer in the world, demonstrated that the model had outstanding scalability and achieved 45.43 PFlops in ultra-high resolution of (1/100)°, using full-scale supercomputer with 10,649,600 cores. This paper was on the final list of ACM Gordon Bell Prize in 2016, which is the top prize of the world on High Performance Computing.

6. [Journal Paper] Qiao Fangli, Yeli Yuan, Tal Ezer, Changshui Xia, Yongzeng Yang, Xingang Lü, Zhenya Song, 2010, A three-dimensional surface wave-ocean circulation coupled model and its initial testing. Ocean Dynamics, 60(5): 1339-1355, doi: 10.1007/s10236-010-0326-y (cited 128 times).

Evidence: Qiao et al develops a comprehensively theoretical framework to include the nonbreaking surface waves in ocean general circulation models. The first wave-circulation coupled model was developed, and the long-lasting common biases for all ocean general circulation models, i.e., the simulated overheating sea surface temperature and too shallow mixed layer depth, were dramatically reduced by over 80%.

7. [Journal Paper] Qiao Fangli, Chuangjiang Huang, 2012, Comparison between vertical shear mixing and surface wave-induced mixing in the extratropical ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 117, C00J16, doi:10.1029/2012JC007930 (cited 23 times).

Evidence: Qiao and Huang compare the performance of classical vertical mixing induced by vertical shear of the ocean current and that by the nonbreaking surface waves in the upper ocean through three numerical experiments. The traditional vertical mixing from vertical shear alone is too weak and fails to produce a reasonable mixed layer depth and seasonal thermocline, which results in too shallow mixed layer depth, a huge cold bias and an unrealistic seasonal cycle in the subsurface. Both the temperature structure and seasonal cycle are significantly improved by including the nonbreaking surface wave-induced vertical mixing, no matter whether shear effect is included or not. These results clearly indicate for the first time that the vertical mixing from surface waves plays dominant role in the upper ocean.

8. [Journal Paper] Qiao Fangli, Zhenya Song, Ying Bao, Yajuan Song, Qi Shu, Chuanjiang Huang, Wei Zhao, 2013, Development and evaluation of an Earth System Model with surface gravity waves. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 118(9), 4514-4524, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20327 (cited 120 times).

Evidence: Sea surface temperature (SST) plays a key role in climate system. Unfortunately, all climate models have been facing common huge SST bias which severely limit the performance of climate models. For the first time, Qiao et al includes the nonbreaking surface wave-induced mixing (Bv) into climate models, and developed the First Institute of Oceanography-Earth System Model (FIO-ESM). Bv greatly improved the performance of climate model especially in the simulation of upper ocean mixed layer depth and SST by reducing the common biases about half. Following this paper, some world leading agencies in ocean and climate models development including NEMO (Europe), NOAA/GFDL (USA), NCAR (USA) and AWI-FESOME (Germany) have started to improve their models through including Bv.

9. [Journal Paper] Zhao Biao, Fangli Qiao, Luigi Cavaleri, Guansuo Wang, Luciana Bertotti, Li Liu, 2017. Sensitivity of typhoon modeling to surface waves and rainfall. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 122(3): 1702-1723, doi:10.1002/2016JC012262 (cited 45 times, Qiao is the Corresponding author).

Evidence: Although Tropical Cyclone (TC) track forecast skill has been continually improved, the progress in intensity forecast lags far behind the track forecast in the past decades. Qiao with his group develops the first effective TC model including surface wave, and the TC intensity simulation is much improved. Based on this model, Zhao et al. (2022, JGR, https://doi. org/10.1029/2022JC019015) shows that for all 21 tropical cyclones entering the model domain in 2013, the intensity bias has been reduced by about 40%.

10. [Journal Paper] Lü Xingang, Fangli Qiao, Guansuo Wang, Changshui Xia, Yeli Yuan, 2008, Upwelling off the west coast of Hainan Island in summer: Its detection and mechanisms. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L02604, doi:10.1029/2007GL032440 (cited 69 times, Qiao is the Corresponding author).

Evidence: Upwelling is an important phenomenon in physical oceanography for fishery and marine ecosystem. The main formation mechanism of upwelling has been considered as the compensating vertical current of wind-driven Ekman transport theory. However, the summertime upwelling off the west coast of Hainan Island detected by satellite sea surface temperature and confirmed by historical field observations is contrary to the Ekman transport theory. Lü et al has found that a tidal mixing front (TMF) is the vital factor triggering the formation of the upwelling. This research reveals that tide-circulation coupling is crucially important for improving model performance, while traditional idea is that tide and circulation are separated into different model streams.

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