!!Martin Carrier
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Martin Carrier has worked on five fields in the philosophy of science.
#History of Early Modern Physical Theory 
#Theory Change: Problems of Methodological Comparison and Confirmation Theory 
#Conceptual Relations among Theoretical Systems: \\
##cognition, neuronal states, behavior \\
##incommensurability \\
##theory-laden tests \\
#Space-Time Philosophy \\
#Methodological Problems of Applied Research 
Regarding the history of early modern physical theory, he has worked on important historical figures from Copernicus to Newton (including the history of Newtonian chemistry in the 18th century). This work was not intended to be purely historical but rather to include considerations of methodological standards that guide the development of scientific theory. Second, the same orientation, if with a different emphasis, characterizes his studies on theory change. His analyses of problems of confirmation and theory comparison are always anxious to take case-studies from the history of science into consideration. This research field includes studies on scientific realism that examine which aspects of a theory are confirmed confirmed by empirical evidence. In this connection, he advances the position of a ''realism of kinds'', that is a variant of structural realism. Third, one of topical foci of his work concerns the exploration of conceptual relations among theories. This work has ramified into three different areas, namely, the analysis of psychological and neuroscientific accounts, the suggestion of a consistent notion of semantic incommensurability, and the examination of options for testing theories by theory-laden evidence. The latter argument is explored in his book on the completeness of scientific theories which contains analyses of ways of testing space-time theory in a non-circular manner by using evidence provided by the very same theory to be tested. Fourth, this work on theory-laden tests was extended to questions of space-time philosophy. Martin Carrier hopes to have achieved, in particular, a clearer notion of the conventionality of physical geometry. His present chief research field is the the methodology of applied research and the methodological changes imposed on science by the pressure of practice. Philosophy of science often focuses on the characteristics of fundamental research without taking into account that a large part of scientific research today is commissioned research, industrial research, or applied research, performed so as to accomplish short-term practical goals. In such instances, the aims of research do not grow out of the smooth development of a discipline but are shaped by non-scientific problems, and the relevant time-frames are narrow. Kinds of bias may emerge under such conditions that are lacking in basic research but merit closer philosophical scrutiny.
!Curriculum vitae

*Born in 1955 Lüdenscheid 
*1975 to 1981 Study of physics, philosophy, and education at the Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster 
*Since 1984 married to Gabriele Carrier; two sons. 
*1984 Ph.D. in philosophy at the University of Münster. Thesis on Lakatos? Methodology and the History of Chemistry in the 18th Century. 
*1984 to 1989 Lecturer in philosophy at the University of Konstanz 
*December 1989 Habilitation in philosophy at the University of Konstanz. Thesis on the Relation between Theory and Evidence in Space-Time Theories. 
*1989 to 1998 Akademischer Rat (tenured position) at the University of Konstanz 
*1994 to 1998 Full professor for philosophy (philosophy of science) at the University of Heidelberg. 
*Beginning April 1998 Full professor for philosophy (philosophy of science) at Bielefeld University. 
*March 2000 Appointment to the German Academy of Scientists Leopoldina 
*2002 to 2009 Member of the Board of Directors of the Bielefeld Center for Interdisciplinary Research (ZiF) 
*2003 Appointment to the Academy of Sciences and Literature Mainz. 
*2008 Gottfried-Wilhelm-Leibniz Prize for 2008 bestowed by the DFG 
*Since 2008 Member of the University Council of Bielefeld University 
*Since 2010 Member of the "Academia Europaea/The Academy of Europe"