!!The Wolf Prize \\ %%columns-fill [{Image src='wolf.jpg' caption='' height='200' border='1' alt='wolf.jpg' class='image_left'}] The Wolf Prize is an international award granted in Israel, that has been presented most years since 1978 to living scientists and artists for "''achievements in the interest of mankind and friendly relations among peoples ... irrespective of nationality, race, colour, religion, sex or political views.''" \\ \\ \\ The Wolf Prizes in physics and chemistry are often considered the most prestigious awards in those fields after the Nobel Prize. The prize in physics has gained a reputation for identifying future winners of the Nobel Prize – from the 26 prizes awarded between 1978 and 2010, fourteen winners have gone on to win the Nobel Prize, five of those in the following year \\ \\ \\ In medicine, the prize is probably the third most prestigious, after the Nobel Prize and the Lasker Award. \\ \\ \\ Until the establishment of the Abel Prize, the Wolf Prize was probably the closest equivalent of a "Nobel Prize in Mathematics", since the more prestigious Fields Medal was only awarded every four years to mathematicians under forty years old. The Prize in Agriculture has likewise been equated to a "Nobel Prize in Agriculture". \\ \\ More information at [Wolf Foundation website|http://www.wolffund.org.il/index.php?language=eng] \\ !!Academia Europaea Wolf Prize Awardees *2013: [Peter Zoller|User/Zoller_Peter], Austria (together with Juan Ignacio Cirac): For their groundbreaking theoretical contributions to quantum information processing, quantum optics and the physics of quantum gases. *2010: [Alain Aspect|User/Aspect_Alain], France: For fundamental conceptual and experimental contributions to the foundations of quantum physics, specifically an increasingly sophisticated series of tests of Bell's inequalities or extensions there of using entangled quantum states. *2010: [Anton Zeilinger|User/Zeilinger_Anton], Austria: For fundamental conceptual and experimental contributions to the foundations of quantum physics, specifically an increasingly sophisticated series of tests of Bell's inequalities or extensions there of using entangled quantum states. *2010: [Axel Ullrich|User/Ullrich_Axel], Germany: For his pioneering contributions to the discovery and characterization of human proto-onco-genes and the development of novel cancer therapies. *2010: [David Baulcombe|User/Baulcombe_David], Britain: For pioneering discovery of gene regulation by small inhibitory RNA molecules in plants. *2008: [Howard Cedar|User/Cedar_Howard], Israel: For fundamental contributions to our understanding of the role of DNA methylation in the control of gene expression. *2006/2007: [Albert Fert|User/Fert_Albert], France: For discovery of the giant magnetoresistance phenomenon (GMR), thereby launching a new field of research and applications known as spintronics, which utilizes the spin of the electron to store and transport information. *2005 [Alexander Levitzki|User/Levitzki_Alexander], Israel: For discovery of protein domains essential for mediating protein-protein interactions in cellular signaling pathways, and the insights this research has provided into cancer. *2005: [Sergei P. Novikov|User/ Novikov_Sergei], Russia: For monumental contributions to algebra, in particular to the theory of lattices in semi-simple Lie groups, and striking applications of this to ergodic theory, representation theory, number theory, combinatorics, and measure theory. *2001: [Alexander Varshavsky|User/Varshavsky_Alexander], USA: For the discovery of the ubiquitin system of intracellular protein degradation and the crucial functions of this system in cellular regulation. *2001: [Saharon Shelah|User/Shelah_Saharon], Israel: For his many fundamental contributions to mathematical logic and set theory, and their applications within other parts of mathematics. *2001: [Vladimir I. Arnold|User/Arnold_Vladimir], France: For deep and influential work in a multitude of areas of mathematics, including dynamical systems, differential equations, and singularity theory. *1999: [Dan User/Shechtman|User/Shechtman_Dan], Israel: For the experimental discovery of quasi-crystals, non-periodic solids having long-range order, which inspired the exploration of a new fundamental state of matter. *1999: [Laszlo Lovasz|User/Lovász_László], Hungary: For contributions to classical and “Euclidean” Fourier analysis and for his exceptional impact on a new generation of analysts through his eloquent teaching and writing. *1998: [Gerhard Ertl|User/Ertl_Gerhard], Germany: For outstanding contributions to the field of the surface science in general, and for their elucidation of fundamental mechanisms of heterogeneous catalytic reactions at single crystal surfaces in particular. *1998: [Ilan Chet|User/Chet_Ilan], Israel: for contributions to the environmentally safe development of world agriculture through innovative approaches in breeding and bio-control. *1996/1997: [Mary Frances Lyon|User/Lyon_Mary], England: for hypothesis concerning the random inactivation of X-chromosomes in mammals. *1996/1997: [Yakov G. Sinai|User/Sinai_Yakov], Russia: For fundamental contributions to mathematically rigorous methods in statistical mechanics and the ergodic theory of dynamical systems and their applications in physics. *1995/1996: [Andrew Wiles|User/Wiles_Andrew], United Kingdom: For spectacular contributions to number theory and related fields, major advances on fundamental conjectures, and for settling Fermat´s last theorem. *1995: [Michal J. Berridge|User/Berridge_Michael], United Kingdom: For discoveries concerning cellular transmembrane signalling involving phospholipids and calcium. *1994/1995: [Vitaly L. Ginzburg|User/Ginzburg_Vitaly], Russia: For contributions to the theory of superconductivity and to the theory of high-energy processes in astrophysics. *1993: [Jacques Tits|User/Tits_Jacques], France: For pioneering and fundamental contributions to the theory of the structure of algebraic and other classes of groups and in particular for the theory of buildings. *1993: [Mikhael Gromov|User/Gromov_Mikhael], France: For revolutionary contributions to global Riemannian and symplectic geometry, algebraic topology, geometric group theory and the theory of partial differential equations. *1992: [Lennart A.E. Carleson|User/Carleson_Lennart], Swede/USA: For fundamental contributions to Fourier analysis, complex analysis, quasiconformal mappings and dynamical systems. *1991: [Richard R. Ernst|User/Ernst_Richard], Switzerland: For revolutionary contributions to NMR spectroscopy, especially Fourier- transform and two-dimensional NMR by Ernst, and multiple-quantum and high-spin NMR by Pines. *1991: [Valentine L. Telegdi|User/Telegdi_Valentine], Switzerland: For contributions to nuclear and particle physics, particularly those concerning the weak interactions involving leptons. *1989: [Alan R. Battersby|User/Battersby_Alan], United Kingdom: For fundamental contributions to the elucidation of the mechanism of enzymic reactions and of the biosynthesis of natural products, in particular the pigments of life. *1989: [Duilio Arigoni|User/Arigoni_Duilio], Switzerland: For fundamental contributions to the elucidation of the mechanism of enzymic reactions and of the biosynthesis of natural products, in particular the pigments of life. *1989: [John B. Gurdon|User/Gurdon_John], United Kingdom: For introduction of the xenopus oocyte into molecular biology and his demonstration that the nucleus of a differentiated cell and of the egg differ in expression but not in the content of genetic material. *1988: [Friedrich Hirzebruch|User/Hirzebruch_Friedrich], Germany: For outstanding work combining topology, algebraic and differential geometry, and algebraic number theory; and for his stimulation of mathematical cooperation and research. *1988: [Henri-Gery Hers|User/Hers_Henri-Géry], Belgium: For the biochemical elucidation of lysosomal storage diseases and the resulting contributions to biology, pathology, prenatal diagnosis, and therapeutics. *1988: [Lars Hormander|User/Hörmander_Lars], Sweden: For fundamental work in modern analysis, in particular, the application of pseudo differential and Fourier integral operators to linear partial differential equations. *1988: [Raphael D. Levine|User/Levine_Raphael_David], Israel: For incisive theoretical studies elucidating energy acquisition and disposal in molecular systems and mechanisms for dynamical selectivity and specificity. *1986: [Albert Eschenmoser|User/Eschenmoser_Albert], Switzerland: For outstanding research on the synthesis, stereochemistry, and reaction mechanisms for formation of natural products, especially Vitamin-B12. *1985: [Philippe Nozieres|User/Nozières_Philippe], France: For major contributions to the fundamental theory of solids, especially of the behavior of electrons in metals. *1982: [Jean-Pierre Changeux|User/Changeux_Jean-Pierre], France: For the isolation, purification and characterization of the acetylcholine receptor. *1982: [Sir James W. Black|User/Black_James], United Kingdom: For developing agents which block beta adrenergic and histamine receptors. *1980: [James L. Gowans|User/Gowans_James], United Kingdom: For contributions to knowledge of the function and disfunction of the body cells through their studies on the immunological role of the lymphocytes, the development of specific antibodies and the elucidation of mechanisms governing the control and differentiation of normal and cancer cells. *1980: [Leo Sachs|User/Sachs_Leo], United Kingdom: For contributions to knowledge of the function and disfunction of the body cells through their studies on the immunological role of the lymphocytes, the development of specific antibodies and the elucidation of mechanisms governing the control and differentiation of normal and cancer cells. *1979: [Arvid Carlsson|User/Carlsson_Arvid], Sweden: For his work which established the role of dopamine as a neurotransmitter. *1978: [Carl Djerassi|User/Djerassi_Carl], USA: For his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation. *1978: [Jean Dausset|User/Dausset_Jean], France: For discovering the HL-A system, the major histocompatibility complex in man and its primordial role in organ transplantation. *1978: [Jon J. van Rood|User/Rood_Johannes], USA: For contribution to the understanding of the complexity of the HL-A system in man and its implications in transplantation and in disease. \\ \\